"The Natural Attitude and Its Exclusion" "

by Edmunt Husserl


The complexes of my manifoldly changing spontaneities of consciousness then relate to this world, the world in which I find myself and which is, at the same time, my surrounding world - complexes of investigative inspecting, of explicating and conceptualizing in descriptions, of comparing and distinguishing, of collecting and counting, of presupposing and inferring: in short, of theorizing consciousness in its different forms and at its different levels. Likewise the multiform acts and states of emotion and of willing...All of them - including the simple Ego - acts in which I, in spontaneous advertence and seizing, am conscious of the world as immediately present - embraced by the one Cartesian expression, cogito.


"The Primacy of Perception And Other Essays on Phenomenological psychology ... "

by Maurice Merleau-Ponty


I will never know how you see red, and you will never know how I see it; but this separation of consciousnesses is recognized only after a failure of communication, and our first movement is to believe in an undivided being between us. There is no reason to treat this primeordial communication as an illusion ... because even then it would become inexplicable. And there is no reason to base it on our common participation in the same intellectual consciousness because this would suppress the undeniable plurality of consciousnesses.


"Being and Time" "

by Martin Heideger


The Being of those entities which we encounter as closest to us can be exhibited phenomenologically if we take as our clue our everyday Being-in-the-world, which we also call our "dealings" in the world and with entities within-the-world. Such dealings have already dispersed themselves into manifold ways of concern. The kind of dealing which is closest to us is not a bare perceptual cognition, but rather that kind of concern which manipulates things and puts them to use; and this has its own kind of 'knowledge'. The phenomenological question applies in the first instance to the Being of those entities which we encounter in such concern. Such entities are not thereby objects for knowing the 'world' theoretically; they are simply what gets used, what gets produced, and so forth.